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Anaerobic Training -
Short, Intense Activity

What is Anaerobic Training?
     Anaerobic is defined as "without oxygen". Anaerobic training is the repeated exercising in which an athlete develops the use of short-term energy systems.  Anaerobic activities include jumping, sprinting, and weightlifting.

     In emergency situations, our body can respond with an instantaneous burst of strength and power. The source of this power resides in our muscles. The potential energy can be altered through training. The ATP-PC energy system is just one of three primary pathways in our bodies. All three utilize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the primary energy source. The speed, intensity, and duration of our muscle contractions determine exactly how that ATP energy is tapped, released and recycled.

     Athletes who are involved in strength and endurance sports train anaerobically. Activities involve two main energy chains - the adenosine triphosphate phospho- creatine (ATP-PC) and the lactic acid system.

     When activity lasts for under 10 seconds or long enough to run a 100 meter race the ATP-PC system is operating at full power. The body begins to form lactic acid after about 5-10 seconds of activity without oxygen.

     When Anaerobic activity occurs without oxygen, the Glucose in muscles brakes down to form lactic acid resulting a quick supply of ATP. This allows bursts of intense activity to continue from about 30 seconds to up to 3 minutes. The Lactic acid accumulates in the body and takes about 2 hours for it to break down in the muscles after intense exercise.

     As muscle glycogen is converted to form ATP byproducts, there is a corresponding increase in lactate and hydrogen ion (acid) secretion. The build-up of hydrogen ions will ultimately prevent further muscle contractions at high levels. Your body can extend the ATP-PC by reducing the level of intensity. A side effect of the lactate and hydrogen ion production is the increase in Human Growth Hormone (HGH) that result increasing muscle mass.

Note: Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is produced by the pituitary gland, but the levels gradually decline as we age. The hormone is critical for children's growth and the health of the body's organs. It stimulates the growth of muscle, bone and cartilage, and enhances immune function.

HGH levels are increased by intense anaerobic workouts and sleep. A nutritious diet and uninterrupted sleep are critical components that allow the body to produce HGH and serotonin hormones.  There's no short cut! Save money and avoid HGH supplements hyped in health food stores as they have not undergone scientific research to validate their claims.

     
Training activities designed to enhance these systems include:

1. explosive training, such as plyometrics,

2. interval training,

3. strength training, and

4. speed and agility training methods.


The effects on athletes' bodies include:

1. increased strength,

2. larger muscles (hypertrophy),

3. increased power,

4. increased ability to store ATP and PC, and

5. development of both fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers.

References:

Anaerobic exercise is exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed, and power.

Anaerobic Training Energy Systems - Sports Training Adviser Anaerobic training builds athletes' short-term energy systems.

Anaerobic Threshold (AT) is a frequently used term that sometimes causes a ... extremely reliable and powerful predictor of performance in aerobic exercise. ... The AT varies from person to person, and, within a given individual, sport to sport.

Developing A Training Plan

Physical and Mental Training Considerations

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

  
Developing A Training Plan
Application of Learning & Training Theory
Sports In Society
Age Training Guidelines
Planning Training Sessions
Skating Skills & Training
Training Stages
Training Strategies
Competitive Training Strategies
Sports Fitness Training Plans
Advanced Training Plans
Daily Training Tasks
Constructing Annual Training Plan
Annual Training Plan
Global Training
Training to Compete
Training to Train
Skating Training Environment
Peak Performance Training
Cross Training
Principle of Training Variation
Training Variation
  

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