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Anaerobic Activities -
Short, Intense Exercises

What is Anaerobic Training?
       Anaerobic is defined as "without oxygen".  This does not mean you are holding your breath while under water. The term refers to what is the source of the energy.

       Aerobic exercises requires oxygen to create energy while anaerobic workouts create energy without oxygen. Anaerobic exercises rely on blood sugar as the energy source. The duration of anaerobic exercises are considerably shorter than aerobic exercises; however, they are very intense for that short period of time. Anaerobic exercises focuses on developing muscle strength plus adding muscle and bone mass.

       Anaerobic training is the repeated exercising in which an athlete develops the use of short-term energy systems.  Anaerobic activities include jumping, sprinting, and weightlifting. Push-ups, sit-ups, and chin-ups are also examples of anaerobic exercises.

Editors Note: It is essential that an adequate recovery period must be incorporated
between sets or repetitions in a workout and also between workout sessions. If the
body is pushed to extremes over a period of time,
without the necessary recovery,
negative consequences can occur such as extreme
fatigue/low energy levels, mild depression, and reduced self esteem.

Examples of Anaerobic Exercises

       Examples of anaerobic exercises include weightlifting, resistance machines, and sprinting. They all force you to push your body to its maximum, or very close to it, for a short period of time. That brief spurt of intensity is what makes the exercise anaerobic. Exercises like push-ups and sit-ups also fall into the category of anaerobic exercises.

It is essential to give your body adequate time to rest in between sets or
repetition, as pushing your body too hard for too long can have negative
consequences, especially fatigue.

     In emergency situations, our body can respond with an instantaneous burst of strength and power. The source of this power resides in our muscles. The potential energy can be altered through training. The ATP-PC energy system is just one of three primary pathways in our bodies. All three utilize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the primary energy source. The speed, intensity, and duration of our muscle contractions determine exactly how that ATP energy is tapped, released and recycled.

     Athletes who are involved in strength and endurance sports train anaerobically. These activities involve two main energy chains - the adenosine triphosphate phospho-creatine (ATP-PC) and the lactic acid system.

     When activity lasts for under 10 seconds or long enough to run a 100 meter race the ATP-PC system is operating at full power. The body begins to form lactic acid after about 5-10 seconds of activity without oxygen.

     When Anaerobic activity occurs without oxygen, the Glucose in muscles brakes down to form lactic acid resulting a quick supply of ATP. This allows bursts of intense activity to continue from about 30 seconds to up to 3 minutes. The Lactic acid accumulates in the body and takes about 2 hours for it to break down in the muscles after intense exercise.

     As muscle glycogen is converted to form ATP byproducts, there is a corresponding increase in lactate and hydrogen ion (acid) secretion. The build-up of hydrogen ions will ultimately prevent further muscle contractions at high levels. Your body can extend the ATP-PC by reducing the level of intensity. A side effect of the lactate and hydrogen ion production is the increase in Human Growth Hormone (HGH) that result increasing muscle mass.

Note: Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is produced by the pituitary gland, but the levels gradually decline as we age. The hormone is critical for children's growth and the health
of the body's organs. It stimulates the growth of muscle, bone and cartilage, and enhances immune function.

     Human Growth Hormone (HGH)  levels are increased by intense anaerobic workouts and 8 hours of restful sleep. A nutritious diet and uninterrupted sleep are critical components that allow the body to produce HGH and serotonin hormones.  There are no short cuts when it comes to achieving measurable results. Save your money by avoiding HGH supplements that are hyped in health magazines and sold in natural food stores. These products are unregulated and because they have not undergone scientific research they can not validate their claims.
    
Training activities designed to enhance these systems include:

1. explosive training, such as plyometrics,

2. interval training,

3. strength training, and

4. speed and agility training methods.


The effects on athletes' bodies include:

1. increased strength,

2. larger muscles (hypertrophy),

3. increased power,

4. increased ability to store ATP and PC, and

5. development of both fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers.

References:

Anaerobic exercise is exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed, and power.

Anaerobic Training Energy Systems - Sports Training Adviser Anaerobic training builds athletes' short-term energy systems.

Anaerobic Threshold (AT) is a frequently used term that sometimes causes a ... extremely reliable and powerful predictor of performance in aerobic exercise. ... The AT varies from person to person, and, within a given individual, sport to sport.

Developing A Training Plan

Physical and Mental Training Considerations

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

   
Developing Training Plans for Athletes
Evaluation of Training
Age Training Guidelines
Components of Training Plan
Stages of Acquiring New Skills
Strategies for Training
Strategies for Competing
Fitness Training & Sports
Advanced Training
List Daily Training Tasks
Construction of a Training Plan
Developing An Annual Training Plan
Principles of Global Training
Competitive Training
Starting to Seriously Train
Skating Environment
Peaking Performance
Benefits of Cross Training
Principle of Varying Training
Varying Training Improves Results
Approaches to Training
Approaches to Jump Training
Transferring Knowledge & Skills
Aerobic Activities
Anaerobic Activities
Exercises to Develop Coordination
Off-Ice Activities For Skaters
Off-Ice Conditioning
Off-Season Conditioning
Long Distance Traveling
Mental Requirements
Mental Aspects
Mental Training
Mental Training Strategies
Endurance Training
Flexibility Training
Body Weight Training
Weight Training Specificity
Brian Grasso Articles
Evaluation Assessment
 
  

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