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Aerobic Training Strategies

Strategy for the Implementation of an Aerobic Training Session
        Researchers over the last several decades have reported an interference effect on muscle strength development when strength and endurance were trained concurrently. The majority of these studies found that the magnitude of increase in maximum strength was higher in the group that performed only strength training compared with the concurrent training group, commonly referred to as the "interference phenomenon".

         The eighth American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), approved guidelines and maximal aerobic power (&OV0312;O2max) and to establish energy expenditure (EE) recommendations for training, which depend on a subject's body mass (BM). Exclusively based on aerobic training recommendations that are available in the ACSM guidelines,

       When the length of high performance exercises are between 30 seconds and 8 minutes, maximal aerobic and anaerobic capacities, plus maximum strength and muscle power, are required. Several studies have recently indicated that the degree of interference is affected by the training protocols and there may be ways in which the amount of interference can be minimized or avoided. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that training strategies be based on the most current research, to avoid or minimize any interference effect when training to optimize performance in endurance sports.

       As there many people who fail to realize there are negatives that go with aerobic training, it is important to stress these harmful effects can be reversed by doing strength training or anaerobic system training.

Note: Some trainers believe it is possible to get the same results aerobic and anaerobic
training. However aerobic training may also produce some key negative health effects
such as an increase in oxidative stress, chronically elevated cortisol, and lowered
testosterone levels in men. Even more concerning, intense aerobic exercise in animals
has proven to decreases reproductive organ size and function, while lowering androgens
and causing extreme oxidative stress.     
    
source - Charles Poliquin

What is Aerobic Training?
        Aerobic training improves a skaters ability to use oxygen to sustain activity for the time necessary to complete a long free skating, pair, free dance or synchronized team skating program by boosting aerobic (lungs and heart) capacity.

       Unquestionably free skating success depends on the skater's ability to complete a high intensity program with the maximization of technical content combined with an equal ability to connect the elements in an entertaining performance context. Too many skaters lack the necessary aerobic capacity of a skilled performance they "run out of gas" at the end of their program.

      It is essential to match the energy requirements of the program with specific training patterns of intensity, frequency, and recovery time with event specific competition goals.

     Skaters experience specific changes to their bodies that occur in low to moderate intensity activities that last for a more than just a few minutes. Depending on the event level of a skater, they are required to expend increasing energy levels from Pre-preliminary through Senior test and competition events.

     Sustained workouts improve lung capacity and breathe in and transfer oxygen to the blood while transferring Carbon Dioxide out on the breathing out cycle. There are types of internal adjustments the body must make to accomplish the necessary changes.

     Aerobic training largely occurs in slow twitch fibers and muscles support systems (e.g., respiratory, endocrine) that increase cardio fitness and muscular endurance include:
  • Increases in the number of mitochondria (small structures known as the powerhouses) inside muscle cells that produce energy from oxygen

  • Increase in ability of muscle to use fat as a source of fuel

  • Increase in lung capacity

  • Increasing the volume of blood pumped with each beat

  • Changes in levels of hormones (epinephrine) that break down and move fat through the body for use as a fuel,

  • Increased in lean body weight.

      Intensity (how hard), duration (how long), and frequency (how often) are key ways to improve cardio activity. Fitness improves when intensity is between 70-80% of maximum heart rate, but this may not be adequate for the endurance/stamina of senior level skaters in elite international events.

      Elite athletes should utilize a High intensity Interval Training (HIT concept in their on and off-ice regimens. Studies have shown that HIT is a time efficient strategy to stimulate a number of muscle adaptations that are comparable to traditional endurance training. Figure skaters need to explore including specific activities that are used in interval training workouts for other sports.

Aerobic Training

  • Every fitness program must match the energy demands in terms of duration, energy intensity, and the recovery time that is needed. For example, MITF patterns allow for a short recovery period between elements and require a somewhat different training regimens than continuous activity of a free skating, pair, free dance, or synchronized team skating program.
  • Develop a plan that varies training exercises in intensity, duration, and recovery as part of long and short term cycles for consistent improvements to occur of a realistic over time schedule.
  • Incorporate specific skating related exercises in a High Intensity Training (HIT) program.
  • The training plan must establish a baseline of the heart's resting level and monitor the changes, in the resting rate,  that occurs on a weekly schedule.  The fewer beats per minute indicates a higher stroke volume which is a positive training effect.
  • Incorporate a nutritional plan into the training plan. The skater must daily monitor their calories intake to ensure that energy consumption is consistent with energy expenditure to maintain the desired lean body mass.
  • Retain a relative low percentage of body weight/fat percentage, without excessively reducing calories.  Any weight loss program should be under a doctor's supervision.
  • Intense exercise activity stimulates anaerobic muscle metabolism.
  •  A well designed  peak performance training program should develop the proper balance of both types of metabolism to match the specific demand of the different figure skating disciplines.

References:

Aerobic Training Guide Aerobic training is any training that is performed that utilizes aerobic energy. Training primarily in an aerobic zone most efficiently improves aerobic capacity.

Reference Guide to Aerobic Exercise Jan. 21, 2012 ... Are you doing cardio correctly? Learn the ins and outs of aerobic exercise in this in-depth guide from SparkPeople's fitness experts!

What is Aerobic Exercise Aerobic means with air or oxygen. You should be able to carry on a short conversation while doing aerobic exercise.

The Negatives of Aerobic Training Nov. 1, 2011 ... You may know that I am not a big fan of aerobic training. ... Indeed, did you know that aerobic exercise increases oxidative stress.

Developing A Training Plan

Sequence of Cardio and Weights - Exercises “Should I do aerobic training before or after a weights session?” This is a frequently asked question and one over which a wide spectrum of opinion exists.

Endurance Training For Sport How does any athlete reach peak aerobic fitness? Using a combination or aerobic and anaerobic endurance training methods to mirror the competitive demands on the athlete's body.

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

    
Fitness Training Considerations
Kirkpatrick's Evaluating Training Programs
Skating Training Environment
Training Figure Skaters
Group Classes
Fitness Training
Personal Training Plan
Daily Training Plan
Seasonal Training
Training for Junior & Senior Athletes
Age Guidelines for Training
Developing a Plan for Training
Developing Skating Skills
Group Training Stages
Training Priorities
Strategies of Sports Training
Training Task Analysis
Value of Annual Planning
Competitive Training Strategies
Verbal and Nonverbal Communications
PDF  Core Body Training
PDF  Endurance Training Plan

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