The Learning Process
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Aerobic Training

What is Aerobic Training?
    Aerobic training improves a skaters ability to use oxygen to sustain activity for the time necessary to complete a long free skating, pair, free dance or synchro program by boosting aerobic (lungs and heart) capacity.

    Unquestionabiliy free skating success depends on the skater's ability to complete a high intensity program with the maximization of technical content combined with an equal ability to connect the elements in an entertaining performance context. Too many skaters lack the necessary aerobic capacity of a skilled performance they "run out of gas" at the end of their program.

   It is essential to match the energy requirements of the program with specific training patterns of intensity, frequency, and recovery time with event-specific competition goals.

   Skaters experience specific changes to their bodies that occur in low to moderate-intensity activities that last for a more than just a few minutes. Depending on the event level of a skater, they are required to expend increasing energy levels from Pre-preliminary through Senior test and competition events.

   Sustained workouts improve lung capacity and breathe in and transfer oxygen to the blood while transferring Carbon Dioxide out on the breathing out cycle. There are types of internal adjustments the body must make to accomplish the necessary changes.

   Aerobic training largely occurs in slow-twitch fibers and muscles support systems (e.g., respiratory, endocrine) that increase cardio fitness and muscular endurance include:
  • Increases in the number of mitochondria (small structures known as the powerhouses) inside muscle cells that produce energy from oxygen

  • Increase in ability of muscle to use fat as a source of fuel

  • Increase in lung capacity

  • Increasing the volume of blood pumped with each beat

  • Changes in levels of hormones (epinephrine) that break down and move fat through the body for use as a fuel,

  • Increased in lean body weight.

    Intensity (how hard), duration (how long), and frequency (how often) are key ways to improve cardio activity. Fitness improves when intensity is between 70-80% of maximum heart rate, but this may not be adequate for the endurance/stamina of senior level skaters in elite international events.

    Elite athletes should utilize a High-intensity Interval Training (HIT concept in their on and off-ice regimens. Studies have shown that HIT is a time-efficient strategy to stimulate a number of muscle adaptations that are comparable to traditional endurance training. Figure skaters need to explore including specific activities that are used in interval training workouts for other sports.

Aerobic Training

  • Every fitness program must match the energy demands in terms of duration, energy intensity, and the recovery time that is needed. For esample, MITF patterns allow for a short recovery period between elements and require a somewhat different training regimens than continuous activity of a free skating, pair, free dance, or synchro program.
  • Develop a plan that varies training exercises in intensity, duration, and recovery as part of long and short term cycles for consistent improvements to occur of a realistic over time schedule.
  • Incorporate specific skating related exercises in a High Intensity Training (HIT) program.
  • The training plan must establish a baseline of the heart's resting level and monitor the changes, in the resting rate,  that occurs on a weekly schedule.  The fewer beats per minute indicates a higher stroke volume which is a positive training effect.
  • Incorporate a nutritional plan into the training plan. The skater must daily monitor their calories intake to ensure that energy consumption is consistent with energy expenditure to maintain the desirre lean body mass.
  • Retain a relative low percentage of body weight/fat percentage, without excessively reducing calories.  Any weight loss program should be under a doctor's suppervision.
  • Intense exercise activity stimulates anaerobic muscle metabolism.
  •  A well designed  peak performance training program should develop the proper balance of both types of metabolism to match the specific demand of the different figure skating discplines.


Aerobic Training Guide Aerobic training is any training that is performed that utilizes aerobic energy. Training primarily in an aerobic zone most efficiently improves aerobic capacity.

Reference Guide to Aerobic Exercise Jan. 21, 2012 ... Are you doing cardio correctly? Learn the ins and outs of aerobic exercise in this in-depth guide from SparkPeople's fitness experts!

What is Aerobic Exercise Aerobic means with air or oxygen. You should be able to carry on a short conversation while doing aerobic exercise.

The Negatives of Aerobic Training Nov. 1, 2011 ... You may know that I am not a big fan of aerobic training. ... Indeed, did you know that aerobic exercise increases oxidative stress.


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Developing A Training Plan
Kirkpatrick's Learning & Training Theory
Sports In Society
Age Training Guidelines
Planning Training Sessions
Skating Skills & Training
Training Stages
Training Strategies
Competitive Training Strategies
Sports Fitness Training Plans
Advanced Training Plans
Daily Training Tasks
Constructing Annual Training Plan
Annual Training Plan
Global Training
Training to Compete
Training to Train
Skating Training Environment
Peak Performance Training
Cross Training
Principle of Training Variation
Training Variation
Training Approaches
Jump Training
Training Transfer
Aerobic Training
Anaerobic Training
Exercises to Develop Coordination
Off-Ice Training For Skaters
Off-Ice Conditioning
Off-Season Conditioning
Long Distance Traveling
Mental Requirements
Mental Aspects
Mental Training
Mental Training Strategies
Endurance Training
Flexibility Training
Body Weight Training
Weight Training Specificity
Brian Grasso Articles
Evaluation Assessment

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