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Aerobic Activities

What is Aerobic Training?
       The term Aerobic means with air or oxygen. If you are walking with another individual, it should be possible to carry on a short conversation. If you are gasping for air while talking, this is a sign your body is likely in a anaerobic model causing the body to tire faster and are more likely to experience sore muscles after exercising is over.

        Aerobic exercises typically builds endurance by stimulating the red blood cells more efficiently to transport oxygen throughout the body. The goal of aerobic exercise is to push the limit of body to function  at its maximum efficiency and keep it there as long as possible. There should be gradual improvement by exercising at about 70 percent of the maximum heart rate for at least 30 minutes.

Examples of Aerobic Exercise
        Examples of aerobic exercise are workouts that can be maintained at an elevated heart rate for an extended period of time:
  • Running can be accomplished without expensive gym equipment. However, if their are treadmills available, they can be adjusted for speed and incline.
  • Swimming provides an excellent workout without putting added stress on your joints.
  • Cycling requires a bike, but long bike rides that incorporate hills and inclines are great for your aerobic health. Exercise bikes are in gyms and the stationary bike is relatively to purchase for home use.

      Aerobic activity needs to continues over a long period of time; however the expenditure of energy is relatively low in intensity. Aerobic social activities include noncompetitive sports such as - walking, biking, jogging, swimming, and cross-country skiing.

The Aerobic Curve
       The aerobic curve is a condition that occurs when exercise;
  • Begins,
  • Increases in intensity level,
  • Reaches the high or maximum point,
  • Gradually decrease in the intensity level.
       The goal when exercising aerobically is to achieve the target heart rate and maintain it for the entire exercise session until the cool down period. The heart will become conditioned over time and the workload intensity will have to be increased to continue the benefit of the exercise.

       How high you lift your arms determines level of impact of the exercise. Aerobic exercises can be performed in low, intermediate, and high intensity levels. Participants can modify their level of exercising intensity depending upon their level of physical fitness and the frequently of their exercise plan.

What is Aerobic Training?
    Aerobic training improves a skaters ability to use oxygen to sustain activity for the time necessary to complete a long free skating, pair, free dance or synchonized team program by boosting aerobic (lungs and heart) capacity.

    Unquestionably free skating success depends on the skater's ability to complete a high intensity program with the maximization of technical content combined with an equal ability to connect the elements in an entertaining performance context. Too many skaters lack the necessary aerobic capacity of a skilled performance they "run out of gas" at the end of their program.

   It is essential to match the energy requirements of the program with specific training patterns of intensity, frequency, and recovery time with event specific competition goals.

   Skaters experience specific changes to their bodies that occur in low to moderate intensity activities that last for a more than just a few minutes. Depending on the event level of a skater, they are required to expend increasing energy levels from Pre-preliminary through Senior test and competition events.

   Sustained workouts improve lung capacity and breathe in and transfer oxygen to the blood while transferring Carbon Dioxide out on the breathing out cycle. There are types of internal adjustments the body must make to accomplish the necessary changes.

   Aerobic training largely occurs in slow-twitch fibers and muscles support systems (e.g., respiratory, endocrine) that increase cardio fitness and muscular endurance include:
  • Increases in the number of mitochondria (small structures known as the powerhouses) inside muscle cells that produce energy from oxygen

  • Increase in ability of muscle to use fat as a source of fuel

  • Increase in lung capacity

  • Increasing the volume of blood pumped with each beat

  • Changes in levels of hormones (epinephrine) that break down and move fat through the body for use as a fuel,

  • Increased in lean body weight.

    Intensity (how hard), duration (how long), and frequency (how often) are key ways to improve cardio activity. Fitness improves when intensity is between 70-80% of maximum heart rate, but this may not be adequate for the endurance/stamina of senior level skaters in elite international events.

    Elite athletes should utilize a High-intensity Interval Training (HIT concept in their on and off-ice regimens. Studies have shown that HIT is a time efficient strategy to stimulate a number of muscle adaptations that are comparable to traditional endurance training. Figure skaters need to explore including specific activities that are used in interval training workouts for other sports.

Aerobic Training

  • Every fitness program must match the energy demands in terms of duration, energy intensity, and the recovery time that is needed. For example, MITF patterns allow for a short recovery period between elements and require a somewhat different training regimens than continuous activity of a free skating, pair, free dance, or synchronized team program.
  • Develop a plan that varies training exercises in intensity, duration, and recovery as part of long and short term cycles for consistent improvements to occur of a realistic over time schedule.
  • Incorporate specific skating related exercises in a High Intensity Training (HIT) program.
  • The training plan must establish a baseline of the heart's resting level and monitor the changes, in the resting rate,  that occurs on a weekly schedule.  The fewer beats per minute indicates a higher stroke volume which is a positive training effect.
  • Incorporate a nutritional plan into the training plan. The skater must daily monitor their calories intake to ensure that energy consumption is consistent with energy expenditure to maintain the desired lean body mass.
  • Retain a relative low percentage of body weight/fat percentage, without excessively reducing calories.  Any weight loss program should be under a doctor's supervision.
  • Intense exercise activity stimulates anaerobic muscle metabolism.
  •  A well designed  peak performance training program should develop the proper balance of both types of metabolism to match the specific demand of the different figure skating disciplines.

References:

Aerobic Training Guide Aerobic training is any training that is performed that utilizes aerobic energy. Training primarily in an aerobic zone most efficiently improves aerobic capacity.

Reference Guide to Aerobic Exercise Jan. 21, 2012 ... Are you doing cardio correctly? Learn the ins and outs of aerobic exercise in this in-depth guide from SparkPeople's fitness experts!

What is Aerobic Exercise Aerobic means with air or oxygen. You should be able to carry on a short conversation while doing aerobic exercise.

The Negatives of Aerobic Training Nov. 1, 2011 ... You may know that I am not a big fan of aerobic training. ... Indeed, did you know that aerobic exercise increases oxidative stress.

Developing A Training Plan

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

     
Developing Training Plans for Athletes
Evaluation of Training
Age Training Guidelines
Components of Training Plan
Stages of Acquiring New Skills
Strategies for Training
Strategies for Competing
Fitness Training & Sports
Advanced Training
List Daily Training Tasks
Construction of a Training Plan
Developing An Annual Training Plan
Principles of Global Training
Competitive Training
Starting to Seriously Train
Skating Environment
Peaking Performance
Benefits of Cross Training
Principle of Varying Training
Varying Training Improves Results
Approaches to Training
Approaches to Jump Training
Transferring Knowledge & Skills
Aerobic Activities
Anaerobic Activities
Exercises to Develop Coordination
Off-Ice Activities For Skaters
Fitness and Conditioning
Off-Season Conditioning Activities
Tips for Long Distance Traveling
Mental Barriers to Training & Competing
Mental Considerations for Athletic Training
Mental Considerations of Training
Mental Strategies for Training
Endurance Training Activities
Flexibility Training Activities
Bodyweight Exercise Training
Weight Training Activities
Brian Grasso Articles
Evaluation Assessment

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