The Learning Process
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
Acquiring Sports Skills
Different models illustrate
A Three Stage Psychological Model
Four stage psychological model
According to a classic psychological model of how individual learning occurs, before we acquire any skill we must go through four stages of learning or competence. A four stage model includes the following:
Don't allow yourself to become discouraged because you find you are outside of your comfort zone. There is no other way to improve except by applying yourself to the tasks at hand. Learning anything that is worth doing will require time and energy to stretch your existing physical and mental limits. However, it is a necessary part of the process if you plan on taking on even greater challenges in the future.
You have acquired the skills and no longer have to think about performing the skill or task because it's automatic and occurs at an unconsciously level.
Acquiring new skills and modifying or changing existing skills is an ongoing process. Everyone strives to incorporate positive habits, thinking, and behaviors by utilizing this learning process to reduce the obstacles we struggle to deal with on a daily basis. Don't think in terms of obstacles, think in terms of opportunities and ways to improve yourself.
Classifications of Motor Skills
Precision of Movement:
movements are those
that involve large muscle
coordination such as jumping.
Fine movements involve precise control of small muscles such as ballet.
The Environment or Competitive
Open tasks are when the athlete has to react to their location on the ice surface. For example, running out of room to finish the MITF pattern or waiting too long to jump and hitting the barrier.
Closed tasks does not require the skater to focus as much of their location on the ice. For example, the choreography situates the spin in the center of the ice. The environment is stable, so the athlete can concentrate on executing the movement rather than worrying about being too close to the barrier.
Beginning and Ending Points of a Skill:
tasks have distinct
beginning and ending points. A step or spiral sequence must have a
recognizable starting and ending points.
Serial skills consist of a string of discrete skills performed in sequence. A set of turns and/or steps that fulfill the footwork requirement before the execution of a specific jump in a short program.
arbitrary beginning and end points. Free skating programs have
a specific amount of time allocated for each event level. In higher
events there are specific time constraints for short and long
programs with some differences for ladies and men's events. Endurance/stamina
and a high aerobic capacity are very important to completing the last
elements in a program with the emotional and physical energy matching
the beginning of the program.
Training variation of practice activities are varied by intensity and different levels of classes to promote learning and prevents staleness/learning plateaus.
As athletes acquire the fundamental movements of a skill, the variation in practices helps expose them to performing under simulated test/competition conditions that require adjustments in the execution and context of the required test elements and elective elements for a competition.
The following examples demonstrate ideas of how practice variation can be used in preparing for a test or competition:
4 Stages of Learning - Cooperative Learning June 7, 2010 4 Stages of Learning. mcaers. Author: mcaers. There are 4 stages that everyone will pass through during the learning process.
The Four Stages of Learning - Process Coaching Understanding the four stages of learning a skill can help keep the learning process focused on learning to do something, and not feeling bad about ourselves.
Conscious competence learning model matrix - four stage learning process model plus other free personal and organizational development tools, examples, templates, etc.
Skill Development Fitts and Posner (1967) suggested that the three phase learning process is sequential and that we move through specific phases as we learn.
PDF Six Stages for Learning to Use Technology using a relevant activity combined with an understanding of stages a learner typically goes through during the learning process has not been considered.
The five stages that learners go through in an e-learning program UNIT 3: Gilly Salmon, Professor of E-learning and Learning Technologies at the University of Leicester, has identified five stages of online interaction. According to Salmon (2004), each stage requires different types of support from e-tutors. Gilly Salmon's s five stage model can be found on the web and in her book on E-moderating. Stage 1 - Access & Motivation | Stage 2 - Socialisation |
Stage 3 - Information Exchange | | Stage 4 - Knowledge Construction | Stage 5 - Development
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.